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U.S. Department of Defense Fiscal Year 2019 Defense Budget

美国2019年国防预算节选之二:建设更具杀伤力的部队



BUILD A MORE LETHAL FORCE
The surest way to prevent war is to be prepared to win one. Doing so requires a competitive approach to force development and a consistent, multiyear investment to restore warfighting readiness and field a more lethal, resilient, and agile force. The DoD aim is a Joint Force that possesses decisive advantages for key potential warfights, while remaining proficient across the entire spectrum of conflict.

避免战争最可靠的方法就是准备好打赢战争。而要打赢战争,则需要可以强制推动发展的竞争方法、持续多年的投资,从而恢复作战准备并组成一支更具杀伤性、适应性和灵活性的军队。国防部的目标是一个联合部队,对重要的潜在战争具有决定性的优势,并且在整个战争中保持训练有素。

Achieving peace through strength requires the Joint Force to deter conflict through preparedness for war. During normal day-to-day operations, the Joint Force will compete to: deter aggression in three key regions—the Indo-Pacific, Europe, and Middle East; degrade terrorist and Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) threats; and defend U.S. interests from challenges below the level of armed conflict. In wartime, the fully mobilized Joint Force will be capable of: defeating aggression by a major power; deterring opportunistic aggression elsewhere; and disrupting imminent terrorist and WMD threats. During peace or in war, the Joint Force will deter nuclear and non-nuclear strategic attacks and defend the homeland. To support these missions, the Joint Force must gain and maintain information superiority; and develop, strengthen, and sustain U.S. security relationships.

通过力量来实现和平需要联合部队作好战争准备以制止战争。在普通的日常行动中,联合部队要能做到:制止在印度洋太平洋地区、欧洲和中东这三个关键区域的侵略;削弱恐怖主义和大规模杀伤性武器的威胁;并保护美国的利益不受未达到武装战争程度的挑战所威胁。在战争时期,完全调动起来的联合部队将有能力做到:击败某个大国的侵略;阻止其他国家的伺机侵略;摧毁即将发生的恐怖主义和大规模杀伤性武器的威胁。在和平时期或战争期间,联合部队将要阻止核战略以及非核战略的攻击,保卫祖国。为了支持这些任务,联合部队必须获得并保持信息优势;发展、加强并维持美国的安全关系。

Lethal. Destroy massed enemy forces in contested domains from the outset of conflict.
Resilient. Sustain operations while under sophisticated multi-domain attacks.
Agile. Move quickly and unpredictably.
Ready. Fight on short or no notice.

杀伤性:从战争一开始就在战场中摧毁集结的敌军。
适应性:在多区域的复杂攻击下仍能维持行动。
灵活性:快速且不可预测地进行移动。
战备:在短时间内或者无防备的情况下作战。

Recognizing the persistent nature of terrorist threats, the Joint Force must also be able to operate cost-effectively against less sophisticated threats. To achieve these goals, the DoD must invest in redesigning the Joint Force through modernized force structure – i.e., capable capacity – for contested domains. This endeavor will require sustained, predictable budgets. The 2018 National Defense Strategy is the driving logic behind DoD’s planned FY 2019-FY 2023 program, accelerating its priority capability investments in a sustained effort to solidify DoD’s competitive
advantage.

我们认识到恐怖主义威胁的持久性,所以联合部队还必须能以经济高效的方式对付不那么复杂的威胁。为了实现这些目标,国防部必须进行投资,通过现代化的军事结构来重新规划联合部队。这项努力需要持续且明朗的预算。2018年国防战略是国防部2019财年至2023财年计划背后的驱动逻辑,持续地加速了国防优先能力的投资,巩固了国防部的竞争优势。

1. Nuclear forces. The Department will modernize the nuclear triad—including nuclear command, control, and communications, and supporting infrastructure. Modernization of the nuclear force includes developing options to counter competitors’ coercive strategies, predicated on the threatened use of nuclear or strategic non-nuclear attacks.

1、核力量。国防部将实现核三位一体(海陆空)的现代化,包括核指挥、控制和通信,以及支持性的基础设施。核力量的现代化包括基于核攻击或非核攻击,开发出反制竞争对手胁迫战略的方案。

2. Space and cyberspace as warfighting domains. The Department will prioritize investments in resilience, reconstitution, and operations to ensure the Joint Force’s ability to use space and cyberspace, even while under sophisticated multi-domain attacks. The DoD will also invest in a full suite of cyber capabilities and integrate these into DoD’s military planning and concept development. These investments will contribute to deterrence by denying potential adversaries an advantage from attacking United States space and cyberspace assets.

2、以太空和网络空间为作战领域。国防部将优先考虑在军队复原、重建和行动方面的投资,以确保即使在复杂的多领域攻击之下,联合部队也有利用太空和网络空间的能力。国防部还将投资完善的全套网络能力,并将这些能力整合到国防部的军事规划和概念的研究中。这些投资将有助于不让潜在的对手有机会攻击到美国的太空和网络空间资产。

3. Command, control, communications, computers and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR). Investments will prioritize resilient, survivable, federated networks and information ecosystems from the tactical up to the strategic level. Investments will also prioritize capabilities to gain and exploit information, deny competitors those same advantages, and enable the DoD to attribute non-kinetic attacks and to hold accountable adversaries attempting to exploit deniability.

3、指挥、控制、通信、计算机、情报、监视、侦察。国防部投资将从战术到战略层面上优先考虑具有修复力、可长久存在的、联合的网络和信息生态系统。国防部也将优先投资获取并利用信息的能力,使其能反制具有相同优势的竞争对手,并使国防部具备非动能攻击的能力,并能压制住试图反制的对手。

4. Missile defense. Investments will focus on layered missile defenses and disruptive capabilities for both theater missile threats and North Korean ballistic missile threats. In particular, the Department will seek holistic, cost-effective solutions to countering the threat posed by competitors’ missile systems.

4、导弹防御。投资重点将放在分层导弹防御和摧毁战区导弹威胁及朝鲜弹道导弹威胁的能力上。国防部将着重寻求全面、经济高效的解决方案,以对付竞争对手导弹系统所构成的威胁。

5. Joint lethality in contested environments. The Joint Force will be able to strike diverse targets inside highly contested environments to destroy mobile power-projection platforms from the outset of a conflict. This includes capabilities to enhance close combat lethality in complex terrain. Particular focus will be placed on munitions, to include building stockpiles of current munitions, modifying current weapons for future conflicts, and developing future systems to ensure lasting advantage.

5、在战争环境中的联合杀伤性。联合部队将能够在高度激烈的战争环境中打击多个不同目标,从战争一开始就摧毁移动的力量投射平台。这包括在复杂地形中提高近战杀伤力的能力。我们将特别重视弹药等军需品,包括建立现有弹药的储存库、改进现有武器以应付未来战争,并开发出未来的系统,以确保持久的优势。

注释:力量投射是一个军事和政治学术语,指一个国家可以在远离本土的地方表现出武力和其他一些威胁。

6. Forward force maneuver and posture resilience. Investments will prioritize ground, air, sea, and space forces that can deploy, operate, and sustain operations in all domains while under attack. This will require transitioning from a peacetime posture of large, centralized, unhardened infrastructure to resilient, dispersed, smaller, adaptive basing protected by active and passive defenses.

6、前向机动和姿态复原。投资将优先考虑地面、空中、海上以及空间部队,在受到攻击时他们可以在所有领域进行部署、操作并维持行动。这就要求把和平时期巨大、集中且不够强化的基础设施转变成复原力、适应力强的、小而分散的基地,由主动防御和被动防御提供保护。

注释:maneuver机动,指军队为争取主动或为形成较敌有利的态势,有组织地移动兵力和转移火力的行动。

7. Advanced autonomous systems. The Department will invest broadly in military application of autonomy and artificial intelligence, including rapid application of commercial breakthroughs, to gain competitive military advantages.

7、先进的自主系统。国防部将在自主和人工智能的军事应用上进行广泛投资,包括迅速在商业上作出突破,以获得具有竞争力的军事优势。

8. Resilient and agile logistics. Investments will prioritize prepositioned forward stocks and munitions, strategic mobility assets, partner and allied support, as well as non-commercially dependent distributed logistics and maintenance to ensure logistics sustainment while under persistent multi-domain attack.

8、适应力强且不失敏捷的后勤。投资将优先考虑预先的行军储备及军火、战略性流动资产、盟友及同盟支持,以及非商业依赖的分布式物流和维护,从而在受到多方持续的攻击之下仍能保障后勤支持。